HISTORIA10: JOSHUA. Joshua (Hebrew: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Y'hoshuʿa; Greek: Ἰησοῦς, Arabic: يوشع بن نون Yusha ʿ ibn Nūn), is the central character in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Joshua. According to that book, he became the leader of the Israelite tribes after the death of Moses. His story is told chiefly in the books Exodus, Numbers and Joshua. According to the Bible, Joshua's name was Hoshea the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, but that Moses called him Joshua, (Numbers 13:16) and that is the name by which he is commonly known. He was born in Egypt prior to the Exodus, and was probably the same age as Caleb, with whom he is occasionally associated.
|Judges in the Bible|
In the Book of Joshua: Joshua
†Not explicitly described as a judge
Joshua (Hebrew: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Y'hoshuʿa; Greek: Ἰησοῦς, Arabic: يوشع بن نون Yusha ʿ ibn Nūn), is the central character in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Joshua. According to that book, he became the leader of the Israelite tribes after the death of Moses. His story is told chiefly in the books Exodus, Numbers and Joshua. According to the Bible, Joshua's name was Hoshea the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, but that Moses called him Joshua, (Numbers 13:16) and that is the name by which he is commonly known. He was born in Egypt prior to the Exodus, and was probably the same age as Caleb, with whom he is occasionally associated.
He was one of the twelve spies of Israel sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. (Numbers 13:1-16) After the death of Moses, he led the Israelite tribes in the conquest of Canaan, and allocated the land to the tribes. According to conventional Bible chronology, Joshua lived between 1450–1370 BC, or sometime in the late Bronze Age. According to Joshua 24:29, Joshua died at the age of 110.
Joshua also holds a position of respect to Muslims; the Shi'ah believe he was an Imam. Despite not being canonized, he is considered by some to be the patron saint of spies and intelligence professionals.
The English name Joshua is a rendering of the Hebrew language יהושע (sometimes יהושוע), "Yehoshua", meaning "Yahweh is salvation", from the Hebrew root ישע, "salvation", "to deliver/be liberated", or "to be victorious". The vocalization of the second name component may be read as Hoshea (הוֹשֵׁעַ) - the name used in the Torah before Moses added the divine name (Numbers 13:16).
"Jesus" is the English of the Greek transliteration of "Yehoshua" via Aramaic. In the Septuagint, all instances of "Yehoshua" are rendered as "Ἰησοῦς" (Iēsoūs/Jesus), the closest Greek pronunciation of the Aramaic ישוע, "Yeshua" (Hebrew word #3443 in Strong's, Neh. 8:17).
 Narrative of Joshua
 Joshua and the Exodus
As Moses' apprentice, Joshua was a major figure in the events of the Exodus. He accompanied Moses part of the way when he ascended Mount Sinai to receive the Ten Commandments. (Exodus 32:17) He was one of the twelve spies sent by Moses to explore and report on the land of Canaan (Numbers 13:16-17), and only he and Caleb gave an encouraging report, a reward for which would be that only these two of the spies would enter the promised land (Numbers 14:23-24).
 Conquest of Canaan
At the Jordan River, the waters parted, as they had for Moses at the Red Sea. The first battle after the crossing of the Jordan was the Battle of Jericho. Joshua led the destruction of Jericho, then moved on to Ai, a small neighboring city to the west. However, they were defeated with thirty-six Israelite deaths. The defeat was attributed to Achan taking an "accursed thing" from Jericho; and was followed by Achan and his family and animals being stoned to death to restore God's favor. Joshua then went to defeat Ai.
The Israelites faced an alliance of Amorite kings from Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon. At Gibeon Joshua asked God to cause the sun and moon to stand still, so that he could finish the battle in daylight. This event is most notable because "there was no day like that before it or after it, that the LORD hearkened unto the voice of a man: for the LORD fought for Israel. (Joshua 10:14) From there on, Joshua was able to lead the Israelites to several victories, securing much of the land of Canaan.
 Division of the land
In the second part of the book of Joshua (Ch 13 onwards), the extent of the land to be conquered is defined (Numbers 34:1-15) and the allocation of the land among the tribes of Israel. At that time, much of this land was still unconquered. The tribes of Reuben, Gad and half of Manasseh received land east of the Jordan (Numbers 34:14-15) while the other nine and a half tribes received land on the west of the Jordan.
When he was "old and well advanced in years"  Joshua convened the elders and chiefs of the Israelites and exhorted them to have no fellowship with the native population because it could lead them to be unfaithful to God. At a general assembly of the clans at Shechem, he took leave of the people, admonishing them to be loyal to their God, who had been so mightily manifested in the midst of them. As a witness of their promise to serve God, Joshua set up a great stone under an oak by the sanctuary of God. Soon afterward he died, at the age of 110, and was buried at Timnath Serah, in the hill country of Ephraim, north of Mount Gaash.
Joshua's narrative is ascribed to Joshua himself by Bava Batra 15a (Talmud) and early church fathers. In 1943 Martin Noth published an argument that behind Joshua and other books was a unified "Deuteronomistic history", composed in the early part of the Babylonian captivity (not long after 606 BCE); Noth's speculative practice of conjecturing the nonextant tradition has the weakness that "no two scholars ever propose the same tradition history for the stories of the Pentateuch". Most scholars who follow the documentary hypothesis today believe in some such composite, containing the epic history of the premonarchical period, which William Dever calls "largely 'propaganda,' designed to give theological legitimacy to a party of nationalist ultra-orthodox reformers." Gerhard von Rad, another developer of the hypothesis, adds that "comparison of the ancient Near Eastern treaties, especially ... in the 14th and 13th centuries BC, with passages in the OT has revealed so many things in common between the two, particularly in the matter of form, that there must be some connection between these suzerainty treaties and the [OT]." Kenneth Kitchen states that nearly all treaties in this period follow the pattern of Deuteronomy closely, while first-millennium treaties contrarily but consistently place "witnesses" earlier and omit prologue and blessing sections, requiring classification of the Sinai covenant and its renewals in Joshua with the fourteenth or thirteenth century rather than the sixth.
Although Egypt did not have its former grasp on Canaan, there was a strong presence into the twelfth century, and Philistia took greater control of the southern coastal plain then also (Joshua 13:2 mentions the Philistines). Israel was not mentioned extra-Biblically until the Merneptah Stele, erected in 1209 BC, identifying a people in the central highlands of the region. Although only villagers have left sufficient remains, over 300 central settlements and more fringe settlements (representing 40,000 villagers) date to Iron Age I. Israelite sites are identified by being notably absent of pig bones, sometimes interpreted as indicating distinct ethnic identity, and via differing ceramics and more agrarian settlement plans. The village populations of up to 400 lived by farming and herding and were largely self-sufficient. The Book of Joshua explicitly says that Canaan was not completely conquered during Joshua's time. The question of the degrees of conquest and/or assimilation may not be answered with certainty, as both sides cite a large body of archaeological and other evidence.
 In rabbinical literature
In rabbinic Jewish literature Joshua is regarded as a faithful, humble, deserving, wise man. Biblical verses illustrative of these qualities and of their reward are applied to him. "He that waits on his master shall be honored" (Pro. xxvii. 18) is construed as a reference to Joshua (Midrash Numbers Rabbah xii.), as is also the first part of the same verse, "Whoso keepes the fig-tree shall eat the fruit thereof" (Midrash Yalk., Josh. 2; Numbers Rabbah xii. 21). That "honor shall uphold the humble in spirit" (Pro. xxix. 23) is proved by Joshua's victory over Amalek (Midrash Numbers Rabbah xiii). Not the sons of Moses — as Moses himself had expected — but Joshua was appointed successor to the son of Amram (Midrash Numbers Rabbah xii). Moses was shown how Joshua reproved that Othniel (Yalḳ., Num. 776). Joshua's manliness recommended him for this high post. David referred to him in Psalms lxxxvii. 25, though without mentioning the name, lest dissensions should arise between his sons and those of his brothers (Yalḳ., quoting Sifre).
 In Islam
Yusha ibn Nun (Joshua) holds more importance for Shia Muslims than for Sunnis because he is held up as the Imam after Musa (Moses) after the death of Harun (Aaron). As such, he is frequently mentioned in works on theology. Islam recognizes Joshua as the young man who accompanied Moses when they traveled in search of a knowledgeable servant of God (who is considered by some scholars of Islam to be a prophet, others just a man of knowledge), called Al-Khidr. Joshua, accompanying Moses on a journey, lost the fish which they had kept in a basket during several days' travel. On that spot they both met Al-Khidr who reluctantly let Moses travel with him, during which time they came across many things. The Qur'an doesn't refer to Joshua by name(18:61).
In the Quran Joshua is mentioned in the 5th Surah of the Quran (5:22-26). The two men mentioned here are Caleb and Joshua: "Remember Moses said to his people: "O my people! Call in remembrance the favour of Allah unto you, when He produced prophets among you, made you kings, and gave you what He had not given to any other among the peoples. "O my people! Enter the holy land which Allah hath assigned unto you, and turn not back ignominiously, for then will ye be overthrown, to your own ruin." They said: "O Moses! In this land are a people of exceeding strength: Never shall we enter it until they leave it: if (once) they leave, then shall we enter." (But) among (their) Allah-fearing men were two on whom Allah had bestowed His grace: They said: "Assault them at the (proper) Gate: when once ye are in, victory will be yours; But on Allah put your trust if ye have faith." They said: "O Moses! while they remain there, never shall we be able to enter, to the end of time. Go thou, and thy Lord, and fight ye two, while we sit here (and watch)." He said: "O my Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother: so separate us from this rebellious people!" Allah said: "Therefore will the land be out of their reach for forty years: In distraction will they wander through the land: But sorrow thou not over these rebellious people"
 In later literature
In the Divine Comedy Joshua's spirit appears to Dante in the Heaven of Mars, where he is grouped with the other "warriors of the faith."
Composer Franz Waxman composed an oratorio "Joshua" in 1959.
In the literary tradition of medieval Europe, Joshua is known as one of the Nine Worthies.
 See also
- ^ A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament Francis Brown, with S.R. Driver and C.A. Briggs, based on the lexicon of William Gesenius. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 221 & 446
- ^ Fausset's Bible Dictionary
- ^ Joshua, New Bible Dictionary, second edition. 1987. Douglas JD, Hillyer N, eds., Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Wheaton, IL, USA ISBN 0842346678
- ^ cf Numbers 13:16 LXX καὶ ὲπωνὸμασεν Μωυσῆς τὸν Αὐσῆ υἱὸν Ναυῆ Ἰησοῦν (and Moses named Hosea, son of Nun, Jesus)
- ^ The High Priest Jesus in Zechariah 3 LXX
- ^ Joshua 23:1-2
- ^ Joshua 23:7-8, 23:12-13
- ^ Joshua 24:29-30
- ^ Graham, M.P, and McKenzie, Steven L., "The Hebrew Bible today: an introduction to critical issues" (Westminster John Knox Press, 1998) pp. 59, 11–2.
- ^ Dever, William, "What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?" (Eerdmans, 2001) 2001, p. 100.
- ^ von Rad, Gerhard (1962). Old Testament Theology: 2 Volumes (English ed.). Edinburgh; London: Oliver and Boyd. p. 132. http://www.freewebs.com/professor_enigma/evidencesi.htm.
- ^ Kitchen, K. A. (1966). The Ancient Orient and the Old Testament. Chicago: InterVarsity Press. pp. 92–8.
- ^ Golden, Jonathan M., "Ancient Canaan and Israel: An Introduction" (Oxford University Press, 2004) pp. 155–6, 157–8.
- ^ Lawrence E. Stager, Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel, in Coogan 1998, p. 91.
- ^ Niels Peter Lemche, "The Israelites in History and Tradition" (Westminster John Knox, 1998) pp. 37–8.
- ^ Paula McNutt, "Reconstructing the Society of Ancient Israel" pp. 69–70.
- ^ Killebrew 2005, p. 176, 13.
- ^ Miller, Robert D., "Chieftains of the Highland Clans: A History of Israel in the 12th and 11th centuries BC" (Eerdmans, 2005) pp. 98.
- ^ Dever 2003.
- ^ Barton 2004, p. 45.
- ^ Brettler 2005, pp. 95–9.
- ^ The Oxford guide to people and places of the Bible, Bruce M. Metzger, Michael Coogan, P. Kyle McCarter, p. 39
- ^ Hess 1996.
- ^ "Introduction to the Old Testament", chapter on Joshua, by T. Longman and R. Dillard, Zondervan Books (2006)
 External links
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Joshua|
- Book of Joshua at Wikisource.
- The Book of Joshua, Douay Rheims Bible Version with annotations By Bishop Challoner
- Book of Joshua at BibleGateway
- Smith’s Bible Dictionary
- Easton's Bible Dictionary & Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
- de Pury, Albert, Römer, Thomas, Macchi, Jean-Daniel "Israël constructs its history: Deuteronomistic historiography in recent research" (Sheffield Academic Press, 2000)
- Graham, M.P, and McKenzie, Steven L., "The Hebrew Bible today: an introduction to critical issues" (Westminster John Knox Press, 1998)
- Killebrew, Ann E., "Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity: An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, and Early Israel, 1300-1100 BCE" (Society of Biblical Literature, 2005)
- Dever, William, "Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From?" (Eerdmans, 2003, 2006)
- Finkelstein, Israel; Mazar, Amihay; Schmidt, Brian B., "The Quest for the Historical Israel" (Society of Biblical Literature, 2007)
- Joshua, an Introduction and Commentary, by Richard Hess, Inter-Varsity press (1996)
|Judge of Israel||Succeeded by|